Advanced Network Technology

In advanced computer networks, various advanced technologies and protocols are employed to optimize network performance, increase scalability, and improve overall efficiency. These networks often involve large-scale infrastructures, multiple interconnected devices, and diverse networking technologies, such as wired and wireless connections.

Key components of advanced computer networks include:

  1. High-Speed Data Transmission.
  2. Scalability and Flexibility.
  3. Quality of Service (QoS).
  4. Virtualization and Cloud Computing.
  5. Security and Privacy.
  6. Software-Defined Networking (SDN).
  7. Internet of Things (IoT).
  8. Edge Computing.

Overview of CN

A computer network is a system that connects many independent computers to exchange information (data) and resources. The integration of computers and various other devices makes it easier for users to communicate.

A computer network is a collection of two or more computer systems linked together. You can establish a network connection using a cable or wireless network. Hardware and software are used to connect computers and devices in any network.

Layer architecture

OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection. It was developed in 1984 by ISO (“International Organization for Standardization”). It is a 7-tier architecture and each layer performs a specific function. All these seven layers work together to transfer data from one person to another around the world.

  1. Physical Layer
  2. Data Link Layer
  3. Network Layer
  4. Transport Layer
  5. Session Layer
  6. Presentation Layer
  7. Application Layer

TCP/IP suite of protocol

he TCP/IP package is a set of protocols used in computer networks (mainly the Internet) today. Provides end-to-end connectivity by specifying how data is packaged, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received on a TCP/IP network. This functionality consists of four levels of abstraction, each protocol in the suite is at a specific level.

The TCP/IP packages are named after the most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). Some of the protocols included in the TCP/IP package are:

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
IP (Internet Protocol)
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Telnet (Telecommunications Network)
DNS (Domain Name System)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

High-speed LAN MAC Protocols

several MAC( Media Access Control) protocols are generally used to support high- speed LANs( Original Area Networks). Then are a many exemplifications of similar protocols

  1. Ethernet.
  2. Token Ring.
  3. FDDI.
  4. IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi).
  5. InfiniBand.

MAN ( metropolitan area network)

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a computer network that connects computers in an urban area, which can be one large city, several cities and towns, or a large area with many buildings. A MAN is larger than a local area network (LAN) but smaller than a wide area network (WAN). MAN does not have to be in an urban area. The term “city” refers to the size of the network, not the demographics of the area served.

WIRELESS LANs

A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that uses high-frequency radio waves instead of cables to connect devices within a limited area to form a local area network (LAN). Users connected to a wireless LAN can move within restricted areas such as homes, schools, campuses, office buildings, and railroad platforms.

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a networking standard that uses fiber optic connections over local area networks (LANs) for ranges of up to 200 km (124 miles). FDDI protocol is based on token ring protocol. A local FDDI network can support thousands of users. FDDI is often used in wide area network (WAN) or campus network (CAN) backbones, but has largely been replaced by other networking technologies.

DQDB

(Distributed Queue Dual Bus) Protocol used to control access to IEEE 802.6 Synchronous Queued Packet Exchange (QPSX) networks used for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). This architecture allows both circuit and packet switching and supports data, voice, and video traffic. Using fixed-length cell relay technology, DQDB is suitable for unreliable network traffic.

High Performance Parallel Interface

HIPPI is a type of communication bus used to connect various devices to a local area network (LAN) at high speed so that they operate as if they were part of a single supercomputer. HIPPI uses a point-to-point protocol to transmit large amounts of data over short distances at speeds of up to 1 billion bits per second. HIPPI was popular in the late 80’s and 90’s, but has since been superseded by faster interface standards such as SCSI and Fiber Channel.

Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet is a variant of Ethernet technology commonly used in local area networks (LANs) to transmit Ethernet frames at 1 Gbps. It can be used as the backbone for multiple networks, especially in large organizations.

Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of the earlier 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps 802.3 Ethernet standards. It delivers 1000 Mbps throughput while maintaining full compatibility with an installed base of approximately 100 million Ethernet nodes.

Gigabit Ethernet typically uses fiber optic connections to exchange records over long distances at very high speeds. For short distances, copper cables and stranded wires are used.

Wireless Ethernet

“Wireless” means a wireless environment consisting of electromagnetic waves (EM waves) or infrared radiation. Antennas or sensors are present in all wireless devices. Cell phones, wireless sensors, TV remote controls, satellite disk receivers, and laptops with WLAN cards are all examples of wireless devices. Wireless networks transmit data or voice using radio frequencies rather than wires.

Fast ACN Access Technologies

In the context of networking and telecommunications, “ACN” could refer to “Advanced Communications Network.” However, since you mentioned “fast access technologies,” I assume you are referring to “Access Control Networks.” Access Control Networks typically involve systems and technologies that regulate and control access to physical or digital resources. Here are some fast access technologies commonly used in Access Control Networks:

  1. Proximity Cards/Key Fobs.
  2. Biometric Systems.
  3. Smart Cards.
  4. Mobile Credentials.
  5. Access Control as a Service (ACaaS).
  6. Wireless Technologies.

ADSL

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a type of broadband technology that delivers large amounts of digital data to homes and businesses over existing phone lines.

A digital subscriber line modem (DSL modem) is installed on the client side to access ADSL. DSL modems send data bits through local telephone network loops. Local loopback is a two-wire connection between the subscriber’s home and the telephone company’s back office. The data bits are received at the end office by a device called a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM).

Cable Modem

A cable modem is a hardware device used to connect your computer to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) through a local cable TV line. I have two interfaces. One for your cable TV network outlet and one for your computer, TV or set-top box.

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the Internet Protocol (IP) and is the first widely adopted version of the protocol. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to solve the long-awaited problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. This guide will help you understand IPv6 and related terminology with related links and examples.

Basic Protocols

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol, designed to replace IPv4 and address the limitations of IPv4, such as the limited number of available addresses. While the basic principles of networking remain the same, there are some key differences and new features in IPv6. Here are some basic protocols and concepts in IPv6:

  1. IPv6 Addressing.
  2. Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP).
  3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC).
  4. Multicast.
  5. Routing Protocols.
  6. IPSec (Internet Protocol Security).
  7. Dual Stack and Tunneling.

IPv6 main header , extension headers

The miracle of IPv6 in headers. An IPv6 address is four times larger than IPv4, but surprisingly the IPv6 address header is only twice that of IPv4. An IPv6 header has one fixed header and zero or more optional (extension) headers. All important information needed by the router is stored in the static header. The extension header contains additional information that helps the router understand how to process the packet/flow.

In IPv6, static headers contain only the necessary amount of information, excluding information that is not needed or rarely used. All this information is placed between the fixed and top-level headers in the form of extension headers. Each extension header is identified by a separate value.

When extension headers are used, the header fields following the IPv6 static header point to the first extension header. If there are other extension headers, the “Next-Header” field of the first extension header points to the second extension header, and so on. The “Next-Header” field of the last extended header indicates the top-level header. So every title points to the next title in a linked list.

support for QoS

Quality of Service (QOS) measures a network’s ability to support predictable services over a variety of technologies, including Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Ethernet, and IP-routed SONET. A network may use any or all of these structures.

QOS also ensures that maintenance of priority for one or more threads does not cause other threads to fail. A stream can be any combination of source and destination addresses, source and destination socket numbers, and the session or packet ID of a particular application or receiving interface.

QOS is primarily used to manage resources such as bandwidth, hardware, and global objects. It can make better use of network resources, provide tailored services, enable mission-critical applications to coexist, and more.

Security

Computer network security consists of measures taken by a business or some organization to monitor and prevent unauthorized access by outside intruders.

Different approaches to managing computer network security have different requirements depending on the size of the computer network. For example, a home office needs basic network security, while a large enterprise needs a high level of service to prevent malicious attacks on the network.

ESP

Cyber security is a branch of computer technology that deals with the security of virtual clouds and the Internet. All information stored or transmitted via the cloud must be safe and secure. Cyber ​​networks play a very important role in maintaining the security of established connections and transmitting content over secure/secure channels.

Authentication header

The Authorization Header (AH) protocol provides data origin authentication, data integrity, and replay protection. However, AH does not provide data privacy. That is, all data is transmitted in plain text.

Network Security

Network security refers to the measures and practices implemented to protect the ACN infrastructure and its connected devices from unauthorized access, data breaches, and other cybersecurity threats. ACN, as an advanced network composed of interconnected artificial intelligence systems, requires robust security mechanisms to ensure the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of its data and services.

Here are some key considerations for network security in ACN:

  1. Access Control.
  2. Encryption.
  3. Intrusion Detection and Prevention.
  4. Firewalls and Network Segmentation.
  5. Threat Intelligence and Security Monitoring.
  6. Patch Management.
  7. Security Awareness and Training.
  8. Incident Response.
  9. Physical Security.
  10. Vendor and Supply Chain Security.

Symmetric Cryptography

In this type, the encryption and decryption processes use the same key. This is also known as secret key encryption. The main features of symmetric encryption are:

  • Easier and faster.
  • The two parties exchange keys in a secure way.

Asymmetric Cryptography

This is also known as public key cryptography. It’s work the opposite of symmetric encryption. That means you need two keys. One for encryption and one for decryption. The public key is used for encryption and the private key is used for decryption.

Secure-HTTP

Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) is an HTTP transaction security process based on enhancements to the HTTP protocol developed in 1994 by Enterprise Integration Technologies (EIT). It is used to secure e-commerce transactions by encrypting messages to keep a customer’s credit card number or other personal information private. The S-HTTP implementation was developed by Terisa Systems to provide security at the web server and browser level.

SSL

It ensures the security of data transmitted between web browsers and servers. SSL encrypts the communication between your web server and your browser so that all data sent between them remains private and protected from attack.

Key distribution protocols

The secret key authentication method does not describe how the client and server obtain a secret session key to use in sessions with each other. If they are human, they can meet secretly and agree on a key. However, this method will not work if the client is a program running on a workstation and the server is a service running on a network server.

Digital signatures

A digital signature verifies the author, the date and time of the signature, and authenticates the message content. It uses advanced mathematical methods to verify the integrity and validity of digital messages and documents. This prevents impersonation and counterfeiting problems in digital communications and ensures that message content is not altered while in transit. A digital signature also provides information about the message’s origin, status, and contract with the signer. By verifying that the information was created by the signer and has not been modified, this signature establishes the legitimacy of the company that created it. Changing the signed data invalidates the entire signature.

Digital Certificate

A digital certificate is issued by a trusted third party that verifies the identity of the sender to the recipient and the identity of the recipient to the sender.

A digital certificate is a certificate issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) to verify the identity of the certificate owner. CAs issue encrypted digital certificates that contain the applicant’s public key and other identifying information. Digital certificates are used to attach a public key to a specific individual or entity.