Explain C#.net

C#.NET ( pronounced” C sharp”) is an ultramodern, object-acquainted programming language developed by Microsoft. It’s generally used for erecting a wide range of operations, including desktop operations, web operations, mobile apps, pall services, and more. C# is a crucial element of Microsoft. NET frame, which provides a platform for structure and handling operations across colourful biases and operating systems.


.NET framework

The. Net Framework is a software development platform developed by Microsoft for structuring and running Windows operations. The net platform consists of inventor tools, programming languages, and libraries for erecting desktop and web operations. It’s also used to produce websites, web services, and games.


Microsoft Intermediate Language( MSIL), also known as Common Intermediate Language( CIL), is a set of platform-independent instructions generated by language-specific compilers from source law. Because MSIL is platform-independent, it can run in any terrain supported by a common language structure similar to Windows. NET runtime.


Common Language Runtime( CLR). NET Framework. Read the former composition before moving on to this short preface to the DOT NET Framework. At the end of this composition, you’ll learn all about the CLR inC# through exemplifications. But before understanding the. NET CLR, let’s first understand how. NET operations are collected and run.


CLS stands for Common Language Specification and is a subset of CTS. It defines a set of rules and restrictions that any language running in the .NET environment must follow. Languages ​​that follow this set of rules are called CLS-compliant. Simply put, CLS provides integration or interoperability between languages.


The Common Type System (CTS) describes data types that can be used in managed code. CTS defines how these types are declared, used, and managed at runtime. This facilitates cross-language integration, type safety, and high-performance code execution. You can define your classes and values ​​using the rules defined in CTS.

Just-In-Time(JIT) Compiler

The Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler is part of the .NET common language runtime( CLR) responsible for managing the execution of. NET programs, anyhow of the. NET programming language. Language-specific compilers transform source code into an intermediate language. This intermediate language is converted into machine code by the JIT compiler. This native code depends on the computer environment in which the JIT compiler is running.

Base Class Library (BCL)

The base class library contains standard programming features such as collections, XML, data type definitions, I/O (for reading and writing files), reflection, and globalization. They are all contained in the System namespace. It also includes non-standard features such as LINQ, ADO.NET (for interacting with databases), drawing capabilities, and forms and Web support.


Namespaces are used to organize classes. This allows you to control the scope of methods and classes in large .Net programming projects. In short, we can say that you can keep a different set of names(e.g. class names) from another set of names. The main advantage of using namespaces is that the name of a class declared in one namespace does not disharmony with the name of the same class declared in another namespace. Also referred to as a group of named classes that share common functionality. Namespace members can be namespaces, interfaces, structures, and delegates.


An assembly in .NET is a single unit of deployment that contains a set of types and references. Assemblies act like building blocks in a .NET application. All resources required by the application (such as classes, structures, interfaces, etc.) are contained in assemblies.

DLL Hell -Problem

DLL HELL is an issue where one application installs a newer version of a shared component that is incompatible with the version already installed on the computer, causing other existing applications that use the shared component to break. Now the solution to this problem is to introduce version control in .Net with shared assemblies.

Garbage Collection

The. NET scrap collector manages memory allocation and deallocation for your operation. Whenever you produce a new object, the common language runtime allocates memory for the object on the managed mound. As long as address space is available on the managed mound, the runtime continues to allocate space for new objects. However, memory is not infinite. Eventually, the garbage collector has to do a collection to free some memory. The garbage collector optimization engine determines the best time to run a collection based on the allocations made. When the garbage collector performs a collection, it checks for objects on the managed heap that are no longer in use by the application and does what is necessary to free the memory.


Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is a . net. OOP is so important that you should understand the basic principles and terminology for writing simple programs before starting on the .NET path. The main idea of ​​OOP is how to combine data into a single whole and work with this data. These branches are called objects. All OOP languages ​​provide mechanisms to help implement an object-oriented model. They are encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and reusability. Now let’s take a quick look at these concepts.


Classes are simply user-defined data types that represent both state and behaviour. A state represents a property, and an action is what an object can do. In other words, you can say that a class is a blueprint/plan/template that describes the details of an object. A class is a blueprint from which individual objects are created. In C#, a class consists of three elements: a name, attributes, and an operation.


An instance of the class. You bring a class to life by creating objects. Objects can be thought of as capable of performing actions. The sequence of actions that an object performs determines its behaviour. All members of the class are accessible through the object. You must use the dot (.) operator to access class members. The dot operator concatenates object names with class member names.


A loop in programming languages ​​is a method of repeatedly executing a statement or set of statements depending on the result of a condition that must be evaluated for the statements to execute. The resulting condition must be true for the statement inside the loop to execute.

Array C#

The array is a collection of analogous data elements. However, you can group them with the same name as an array, If you have multiple sets of integers and multiple sets of floating-point figures. So, simply put, you can define an array as a collection of values of an analogous type that are stored in conterminous areas of memory with the same name.


Encapsulation is defined as combining data into a single block. A medium that combines law and the data it manipulates. Encapsulation, on the other hand, is a defensive guard that prevents law outside the guard from penetrating data.

  • Technically, with encapsulation, class variables or data are hidden from other classes and can only be entered through member functions of the native class in which they’re declared.
  • Like encapsulation, data in a class is hidden from other classes, so it’s also called data caching.
  • Encapsulation can be achieved in the following ways Declare all variables in the class as private and use theC# parcels of the class to set and get the values of the variables.


Inheritance allows you to define classes in terms of other classes, making applications easier to create and maintain. You can also reuse code features and reduce implementation time.


Polymorphism is a fundamental element of object-oriented programming and helps to address different types of objects through a single interface. Static or compile-time polymorphism is achieved by method or operator overloading whereas dynamic or runtime polymorphism is achieved by method overriding. These are the two types of polymorphism supported by C#.NET.


Interfaces can contain methods, properties, events, and indexers as members. However, interfaces contain only member declarations. Implementations of interface members are provided by classes that either explicitly or implicitly implement the interface.


A constructor is a special type of method associated with a class that is called automatically when an instance of the class (that is, an object) is created. Like other member functions or methods, these constructors also contain specific instructions that are executed when the object is created. In particular, it is used to assign values ​​to all or some data members of a class.


A destructor is another method that takes the class name but is preceded by the ~ (tilde) operator/sign. Destructors are used to deinitialize objects and memory is used when creating constructors. You can think of them as the opposite of constructors.

Method Overloading

Method overloading is a type of polymorphism. It has several names such as “Compile Time Polymorphism” or “Static Polymorphism”, also known as “Early Binding”.

Method overloading means creating multiple methods in a class with the same name but different signatures (parameters). This allows a class, struct, or interface to declare multiple methods with the same name and unique signature.

Method overriding

Method overriding is a type of polymorphism. It has several names similar to” runtime polymorphism” or” dynamic polymorphism”, also known as” late list”.

Booting a system means having two styles with the same name and the same hand( parameters), one of which must be in the base class and the other must be in the deduced class( child class). You can stamp the functionality of a base class system to produce a system with the same name and hand in a deduced class. Method overriding can be achieved using inheritance. Virtual and Override keywords are used to override methods.

Operator Overloading

Operator overloading allows you to use the same operator to perform different tasks. Provides additional functionality to C# operators when applied to user-defined data types. This allows you to create custom implementations of various operations where one or both operands are custom classes.


Modifiers are keywords used to specify the characteristics and actions of colourful rudiments in a program, similar to classes, styles, fields, parcels, and more. Then are some generally used modifiers in #

  1. Access Modifiers.
  2. Non-access Modifiers.
  3. Other Modifiers.


An indexer allows you to index an instance of a class or structure into an array. When the user defines an indexer for a class, the class behaves like a virtual array. The array access operator, namely ([]), is used to access an instance of the class used by the indexer. Users can get or set indexed values ​​without specifying instances or type members. Indexers are almost identical to properties. The main difference between indexers and properties is that indexer accessors take parameters.


A collection is nothing further than a group of records that can be allowed of as a logical unit. For illustration, you might have a country collection with country canons and country names. You can have a collection of products with a product ID and product name. You could have a collection of workers with hand names and hand IDs. You might have a collection of books with ISBNs and book titles. Take a look at the image below for a better understanding.


Namespaces are meant to give the capability to keep one set of names separate from another. A class name declared in one namespace doesn’t discord with the same class name declared in another namespace.


A delegate can be said to be an object that refers to a system or a variable of type reference that can contain a reference to a system. Delegates inC# are analogous to function pointers in C/C. Provides a way to tell which system should be called when an event occurs.

For illustration, when a button on a form( Windows Form operation) is clicked, the program calls a specific system. In simple terms, a type that represents a system reference with a specific parameter list and return type, and invokes the system in your program to execute it when demanded.

Exception Handling

Exceptions are defined as events that occur during program execution and are not expected by program code. What action to take when an exception occurs is not known to the program. In this case, you create an exception object and call the exception handler code. Executing an exception handler to avoid crashing program code is called exception handling. Exception handling is important because it gracefully handles unwanted events, and exceptions so that your code still makes sense to the user.

.NET IDE: Create Project

To produce a design and result in Microsoft. NET IDE, you generally use an Integrated Development Environment( IDE) similar as Visual Studio or Visual Studio Code. Both of these IDEs give a stoner-friendly interface for development. NET operations. Then is a general overview of the way to produce a design and result using Visual Studio:

  1. Launch Visual Studio.
  2. Create a new project.
  3. Choose a project template.
  4. Configure project settings..
  5. Create the solution..
  6. Customize project settings (optional).
  7. Start coding.

Building project

Building a project in .NET can be a rewarding experience. .NET is a popular framework developed by Microsoft that provides a robust and flexible platform for building a wide range of applications, including web, desktop, and mobile applications.

Debugging project

Remedying a design in. NET involves relating and resolving issues or crimes that occur during the development or prosecution of a. NET operation. Then are some ways you can follow to remedy yours. NET design

  1. Enable debugging.
  2. Set breakpoints.
  3. Start debugging..
  4. Step through the code.
  5. Inspect variables and values.
  6. Analyze the call stack.
  7. Fix the issue.
  8. Handle exceptions.
  9. Test and retest.

Solution Explorer

Solution Explorer is a feature of Microsoft Visual Studio, an integrated development environment (IDE) commonly used for developing C# applications. Solution Explorer provides a hierarchical view of the files and projects within a solution. It allows you to manage and organize your project’s structure, add or remove files, and navigate through different parts of your solution.


The Toolbar is another toolbar that contains several sections, the main one being the Component Toolbox. Editing the Windows Forms layout, adding items to dialogue boxes, and placing other resources depend on the toolbar being the drag source for the available item palettes.

Server Explorer

Server Explorer displays a set of tree nodes for all connected servers. we can select different categories of nodes and drag and drop them onto the Windows Form. Here, VS.NET creates a set of adapters to allow programs to access nodes of their choosing.

Property Window

Properties window is the collective name for the following types of user interfaces (UIs): Property Sheet: Used to view and modify the properties of an object or set of objects in a dialogue box. Property Inspector: Used to view and modify the properties of an object or set of objects in a panel.

Windows Form Controls

The base class for Windows Forms controls, System.Windows.Forms.Control provides the necessary infrastructure for rendering in Windows client applications. Control provides window handles, handles message routing, provides mouse and keyboard events, and many other user interface events. It provides an advanced layout and has properties related to visual display such as ForeColor, BackColor, Height, Width, etc. It also provides security, multi-threading support, and interoperability with ActiveX controls. Developing your own Windows Forms is relatively easy because most of the infrastructure is provided by the base classes. controls.


The .NET Framework includes its own data access technology, ADO.NET. ADO.NET is the latest implementation of Microsoft’s data availability strategy. ADO.NET consists of management classes that allow .NET applications to connect to data sources such as Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access, Oracle, and XML, execute commands, and manage disparate data.

C# WinForms Data Control

Windows Forms is a popular framework for creating desktop applications with a graphical user interface (GUI). It provides a set of controls and components that allow you to create forms, buttons, labels, text boxes, and other UI elements.


A .NET MAUI ( Multiplatform Application User Interface ) grid is a layout that organizes child elements into rows and columns that can be proportional or absolute in size. By default, a Grid contains one row and one column. Grids can also be used as parent layouts that contain other child layouts.

Datasource controls

There are six types of data source controls and each of them is designed to work. The following data source controls.

  • SqlDataSource.
  • AccessDataSource.
  • ObjectDataSource.
  • XmlDataSource.
  • SiteMapDataSource.
  • DataSetDataSource

data binding controls

A list control is a component that provides specific user interface functionality, such as a data list or data grid. Controls have two main classes. These are Systems.Windows.Forms.Control (Windows Forms client control) and System.Web. UI.Control (ASP.NET server control). All controls in the .NET Framework class library derive directly or indirectly from these two classes.

Connected and disconnected scenarios

There are two ways to connect and work with Entity Framework, including connecting and disconnecting. Both paths have their own meaning. Assuming you want to display some data in the presentation layer and you are using some sort of n-tier application, it makes sense to open the context, get the data and finally close the context. Because we retrieved data from it and closed the context, the retrieved object is no longer tracked, which is an end scenario. For the linked scenario, we have a Windows service and we do some business operations on those objects, so we open a context, loop through all the objects, do business operations, and then save the changes to the same context as ours. . open first. For attached scripts, changes are tracked by the context, but for disabled scripts, the state of the object must be notified to the context.


A DataSet is a data structure that can contain multiple relational rowsets, the relationships connecting them, and metadata about each row set. Datasets also track changed fields, new values, and original values, and can store custom information in extended property collections. Data sets can be exported to XML or generated from XML documents, improving communication between applications.


ADO.NET connections are one of the easiest ways to connect to databases from C# applications. It relies on the use of a connection string pointing to a database and a provider to create queries.

Adapter design

An adapter design pattern is a class interface into another interface expected by the client. This design pattern allows classes to work together in ways that are not possible due to incompatible interfaces.

Command Pattern

A request is placed of an object as a command and passed to the caller. The Invoker object passes the command to the appropriate object that can handle it, and that object executes the command. Process requests in traditional ways such as queues and callbacks.

Data readers

A DataReader object is used to access data in a data store and is one of two mechanisms provided by ADO.NET. A DataReader object provides a high-performance read-only and forward-only mechanism for retrieving data from a data store into a data stream while remaining connected to the data source. DataReader is limited but highly optimized. The .NET platform provides data providers for the SQL Server native OLE DB provider and native ODBC driver.


ASP.NET is a web development platform that provides a programming model, comprehensive software infrastructure, and a variety of services for building robust web applications for desktop and mobile devices.


ASP.NET works on a three-tier architecture. This architecture is very popular because it improves application performance, scalability, flexibility, and code reuse. In a three-tier architecture, applications are divided into three main functional areas.

  • The presentation Layer.
  • The business Layer.
  • The data Layer

web and html controls

HTML server controls

An HTML server control is an HTML element that includes the runat=server attribute. HTML server controls have the same HTML output and attributes as their corresponding HTML tags. HTML server controls also provide automatic server-side state and event management.

Web server controls

This is similar to the HTML server controls such as Button, TextBox, and Hyperlink, except that Web controls have a standardized set of property names.

Web Forms

Create a variety of web forms using ASP.NET WebForms. Web Forms are part of ASP.NET Web Applications and are included with Visual Studio. This web form provides the ability to develop web applications with a graphical user interface. ASP.NET allows you to write reusable code and use it elsewhere without having to write code from scratch. Reuse also helps reduce developer time and increase work efficiency.

Using Rich Server Controls

In the last article, we looked at some simple controls. This includes validation controls, TextBoxes, Labels, and other simple controls. The Microsoft.net platform provides advanced control to developers. Among them are Calendar, AdRotator, and XML controls. This tutorial explores how to use the rich controls provided by the framework.

Overview of ASP.NET Validation Controls

ASP.Net provides a number of validation controls that validate user data to ensure that the data entered by the user satisfies a condition. ASP.Net provides RequiredFieldValidator, RangeValidator, CompareValidator, RegularExpressionValidator, CustomValidator, and ValidationSummary. RequirefFieldValidator is used when a specific field is required, and RangeValidator is used when a specific value must be within a specified range. CompareValidator is used to compare the value of one control to the fixed value of another control. An expression pattern, CustomValidator, allows users to create custom validations, and ValidationSummary provides a summary.

Database connectivity using ASP.net

Now let’s look at the code we need to save to create the database connection. This example connects to a database called Demodb.