Cyber laws

Cyber laws, also known as internet law or cyber law, is part of the general legal system of forensic informatics and governs the digital distribution of information, e-commerce, software and information security. It covers forensic informatics and electronic elements, including information systems, computers, software and hardware. It covers many areas such as internet access and use, various subtopics, freedom of expression and online privacy.

Digital Signature

A digital signature is a way to verify the legitimacy of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature guarantees the recipient that the message came from a known sender, so the sender cannot deny that the message was sent. Digital signatures are mainly used for software distribution, financial transactions, etc., and there is a risk of forgery and tampering.

Electronic Signature

An electronic signature or digital signature indicates that the person who requested the creation of the message is the person who created the message.

A signature can be defined as a schematic script involving a person. Signing a document is an indication that the person accepts the goals written in the document. Many engineering companies require digital seals for another layer of authentication and security. Digital seals and signatures are similar to handwritten signatures and stamps.

Penalty and Compensation for damage to computer system

If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is incharge of a computer, computer system or computer network –

(a) accesses or secures access to such computer, computer system or computer network or computer resource;

(b) downloads, copies or extracts any data, computer data base or information from such computer, computer system or computer network including information or data held or stored in any removable storage medium;

(c) introduces or causes to be introduced any computer contaminant or computer virus into any computer, computer system or computer network;

(d) damages or causes to be damaged any computer, computer system or computer network, data, computer data base or any other programmes residing in such computer, computer system or computer network;

(e) disrupts or causes disruption of any computer, computer system or computer network;

(f) denies or causes the denial of access to any person authorised to access any computer, computer system or computer network by any means;

(g) provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access to a computer, computer system or computer network in contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder;

(h) charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer, computer system, or computer network;

(i) destroys, deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injurously by any means;

(j) Steals, conceals, destroys or alters or causes any person to steal, conceal, destroy or alter any computer source code used for a computer resource with an intention to cause damage,

Tampering with computer source documents

Tampering with computer source documents is a form of computer crime that involves altering, modifying, or deleting computer source documents without proper authorization. Computer source documents are the original programming law or software that runs a computer system or operation.

Tampering with computer source documents can have serious consequences, including causing system crashes, data loss, or compromising the security of the system. It can also be used to introduce vicious law, similar as contagions, worms, or other malware, which can infect other systems and beget wide damage.

Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service

Any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device,-

(a) any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character; or

(b) any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, persistently makes by making use of such computer resource or a communication device,

(c) any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine.


Explanation: For the purposes of this section, terms “Electronic mail” and “Electronic Mail Message” means a message or information created or transmitted or received on a computer, computer system, computer resource or communication device including attachments in text, image, audio, video and any other electronic record, which may be transmitted with the message.

Punishment For Identity Theft

Identity theft, also known as identity fraud, is a crime in which the defendant obtains key personal information. Identity theft is the fraudulent use of someone’s name and personal information to obtain loans, loans, etc. Identity theft is the intentional use of someone’s identity to obtain financial or other benefits on behalf of an individual. This is when a thief steals your personal information to gain access to your bank account or use the information to commit fraud or crime.

Punishment for violation of privacy

Pursuant to Section 66E of the Information Technology Act of 2000, anyone who knowingly or knowingly capturing, posting or transmitting an image of a person’s private domain without his or her consent in a situation that violates the privacy of a person is liable to imprisonment. It may be extended for up to 3 years or fined not more than 200,000 rupees or both.

Description.– For the purposes of this section–

(a) “transmit” means to electronically send a visual image with the intent that it be viewed by a person or persons;

(b) “capture”, with respect to an image, means to videotape, photograph, film or record by any means;

(c) “private area” means the naked or undergarment-clad genitals, public area, buttocks or female breast:

(d) “publishes” means a reproduction in the printed or electronic form and making it available for the public;

(e) “under circumstances violating privacy” means circumstances in which a person can have a reasonable expectation that –

  1. he or she could disrobe in privacy, without being concerned that an image of his private area was being captured; or
  2. any part of his or her private area would not be visible to the public, regardless of whether that person is in a public or private place.

Punishment for cyber terrorism

cyber terrorism is considered a serious crime that carries severe penalties. corrections can include imprisonment, forfeitures, community service, and indeed the death penalty in some countries. For illustration, in the United States, cyber terrorism is punishable by over to life imprisonment if the offense results in death, or by up to 20 times imprisonment if the offense results in serious fleshly injury.

In addition to felonious penalties, individualities or associations set up shamefaced of cyber terrorism may also be subject to civil liability. They may be needed to pay damages to victims of their conduct or to compensate for any losses suffered by businesses or government agencies as a result of their cyber attacks.

Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form

The discipline for publishing or transmitting stag material in electronic form can vary depending on the specific cyber laws of the country or governance in question. In numerous cases, similar conduct may be considered a felonious offense and could affect in forfeitures, imprisonment, or both.

For illustration, in India, the Information Technology Act of 2000 prohibits the publishing or transmitting of stag material in electronic form and provides for discipline of imprisonment up to three times and/ or a forfeiture. also, Section 67A of the same Act provides for a discipline of imprisonment up to five times and/ or a forfeiture for publishing or transmitting sexually unequivocal content depicting children.

In the United States, the civil government and numerous countries have laws proscribing the distribution of stag material. The discipline for similar offenses can include forfeitures, imprisonment, or both.

Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act

Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted in the electronic form any material which contains sexually explicit act or conduct shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years and also with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

Exception: This section and section 67 does not extend to any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure in electronic form-

  1. the publication of which is proved to be justified as being for the public good on the ground that such book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science,literature,art,or learning or other objects of general concern; or
  2. which is kept or used bona fide for religious purposes.

E-Forms

Electronic form refers to any information that is created, transmitted, stored or processed in digital or electronic format. Cyber laws, also known as internet laws or digital laws, are legal regulations that govern internet usage, electronic communication, and other related activities.

In the context of cyber laws, electronic form is of great importance as it is the primary format used for electronic communication and transactions. Cyber laws provide legal recognition to electronic records, digital signatures, and electronic documents, which are considered equivalent to their physical counterparts.

Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act

(a) publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted material in any electronic form which depicts children engaged in sexually explicit act or conduct or

(b) creates text or digital images, collects, seeks, browses, downloads, advertises, promotes, exchanges or distributes material in any electronic form depicting children in obscene or indecent or sexually explicit manner or

(c) cultivates, entices or induces children to online relationship with one or more children for and on sexually explicit act or in a manner that may offend a reasonable adult on the computer resource or

(d) facilitates abusing children online or

(e) records in any electronic form own abuse or that of others pertaining to sexually explicit act with children,

shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with a fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years and also with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees:

Provided that the provisions of section 67, section 67A and this section does not extend to any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure in electronic form-

(i) The publication of which is proved to be justified as being for the public good on the ground that such book, pamphlet, paper writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science, literature, art or learning or other objects of general concern; or

(ii) which is kept or used for bonafide heritage or religious purposes

Explanation: For the purposes of this section, “children” means a person who has not completed the age of 18 years.

Breach of confidentiality and privacy in cyber laws

Breach of confidentiality and privacy is a serious issue in cyber laws. Cyber laws are a set of legal rules and regulations that govern activities in the digital world. The breach of confidentiality and privacy can occur when sensitive information is disclosed or accessed without authorization.

Cyber laws have specific provisions that address breach of confidentiality and privacy. For instance, many countries have data protection laws that impose strict obligations on organizations that handle personal data. These laws typically require organizations to implement appropriate measures to protect personal data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, or destruction.