A management information system (MIS) is the study of people, technologies, organizations, and the relationships among them. MIS experts help companies get the most out of their investments in people, equipment and business processes. MIS is a people-oriented field that focuses on service through technology. If you’re interested in technology and want to use it to improve people’s lives, an MIS degree might be for you.

Organisation & Types

Associations can be distributed into different types grounded on colorful criteria. Then are some common types of associations in MIS.

  1. Functional Organization.
  2. Divisional Organization.
  3. Matrix Organization.
  4. Network Organization.
  5. Virtual Organization.
  6. Hybrid Organization.

Decision Making

The role of a management information system (MIS) in decision-making is to generate data useful for management by considering strategy, staffing, teams, marketing, and more. The choice of data that MIS monitors and how management uses that data in decision-making can determine or change a company’s direction in a competitive market.


Data can be defined as a group of non-random characters (words, values, numbers) that represent something that happened.

Data are facts and recorded facts obtained through observation or research. Often referred to as raw or primary data, they are often records of an organization’s day-to-day operations. for example; The date, amount and other details of the invoice or check, payroll salaries, national insurance and per capita taxes, vehicle drop-offs or shifts, number of vehicles passing through traffic control, etc.


Information is data interpreted and understood by the recipient of the message. It is important to note that users as well as senders are involved in transforming data into information. There is a process of thought and understanding involved and a given message may mean different things to different people.


  1. System Approach.
  2. Management Oriented.
  3. Need-Based.
  4. Exception Based.
  5. Future Oriented.
  6. Integrated.
  7. Long Term Planning.
  8. Sub-System Concept.
  9. Central Database.

Classification of Information

  1. Classification by Characteristic.
  2. Classification by Application.
  3. Classification by Management Hireachy.

Cost of information

The cost of information refers to the expenses incurred in acquiring, processing, storing, and distributing information within an organization. These costs can include hardware and software investments, database management systems, network infrastructure, personnel salaries, training, and maintenance. Additionally, costs may also arise from data collection, data entry, data cleansing, and data integration processes. Organizations need to allocate resources effectively to ensure the cost of information remains within reasonable limits.

Value of Information

The value of information represents the benefits and advantages derived from using information effectively to support decision-making and improve organizational performance. When information is accurate, relevant, timely, and accessible, it can enable better decision-making, enhance operational efficiency, support innovation, enable strategic planning, facilitate customer relationship management, and foster competitive advantage. The value of information can be measured in terms of cost savings, revenue generation, improved customer satisfaction, increased productivity, and overall business performance.

Info Channels & MIS

Channels of information and Management Information Systems (MIS) are vital for effective communication and decision-making within organizations. Here are some examples of various channels of information and their relevance to MIS:

  1. Intranet.
  2. Emails.
  3. Memos.
  4. Meetings.
  5. Reports.
  6. Dashboards.
  7. Newsletters.
  8. Instant Messaging.
  9. Collaboration Platforms.
  10. Social Media.

Foundation of Information System

All programs in business processes require students to take information systems courses. Information systems change every day. The basics of information systems will be reflected in this research report and five different modules related to information systems are available. This topic will be covered through Kolb’s Learning Cycle. Kolb’s learning cycles can be used to describe and define the behavior of learning subjects. There are four steps or approaches to this learning cycle. For example:

  • Concrete Experience
  • Reflective Observation
  • Abstract Conceptualization
  • Active Experimentation

Introducation to business information system

A business information system is a set of interrelated processes that use a company’s IT infrastructure to create and distribute required information.

These systems are designed to support the decision-making of people involved in the enterprise as they achieve their goals.

Solving Biz Problems with IS

Information systems play a crucial role in solving various business problems by providing efficient and effective solutions. Here are some ways information systems can help address common business challenges:

  1. Data Management.
  2. Process Automation.
  3. Decision Support.
  4. Customer Relationship Management (CRM).
  5. Supply Chain Management.
  6. Collaboration and Communication.
  7. Risk Management.
  8. Business Process Improvement.

Balanced MIS Concept

A Balanced MIS (Management Information System) refers to a well-rounded and comprehensive approach to organizing, processing, and disseminating information within an organization. It aims to provide decision-makers with accurate, relevant, and timely information to support strategic and operational decision-making processes.

The concept of a Balanced MIS is rooted in the idea that an effective information system should consider multiple dimensions of organizational performance and align with the goals and objectives of the business. It goes beyond simply collecting and presenting data and focuses on striking a balance among various aspects, including:

  1. Data Accuracy and Integrity.
  2. Timeliness.
  3. Relevance and Context.
  4. Integration and Accessibility.
  5. Performance Metrics and Key Indicators.
  6. User-Friendly Interface and Visualization.

Effectiveness Criteria

Efficiency means doing the “right”—doing things that add value to the business and move the needle toward the company’s goals. Few teams today effectively link their current work to the broader goals of the company. In a recent study of more than 6,000 knowledge workers, only 26% of employees reported having a very clear idea of ​​how their individual work relates to company goals, and only 16% said their company sets and communicates goals very effectively.

Efficiency Criteria

efficiency criteria is a traditional concern of welfare economics. Whereas microeconomics deals with the behaviour of individual economic agents and the workings of markets, the task of welfare economics is to develop criteria for evaluating economic policy measures and economic regulatory systems. Welfare economics has both a positive and a normative element. On the one hand it attempts to explain how certain economic policy measures or economic regulatory systems influence a country’s economic development. On the other hand it is concerned with evaluating social states i.e. finding out whether the effects triggered by a particular action are thought to have raised or lowered welfare.

MIS DFD Tools & Techniques

Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are graphical tools used in Management Information Systems (MIS) to represent the flow of data within a system. They provide a visual representation of how data moves between various processes, entities, and data stores within a system. Here are the main tools and techniques used in creating data flow diagrams:

  1. Process.
  2. External Entity.
  3. Data Flow.
  4. Data Store.
  5. Data Flow Diagram Symbols.
  6. Decomposition.
  7. Context Diagram.
  8. Level 0 Diagram.
  9. Level 1 and Lower-Level Diagrams.
  10. Balancing.

MIS Flowchart

A flowchart is a graphical representation of a process or system, often used in management information systems (MIS) to depict the flow of information or activities within an organization. It helps visualize the steps, decision points, and relationships between different components of a process. Here’s an example of a basic flowchart commonly used in MIS:

  1. Start.
  2. Input.
  3. Process.
  4. Decision.
  5. Output.
  6. Loop/Iteration.
  7. End.

Business Applications of Information Systems

Business applications of inforamation systems support an organization’s business processes and operations, business decision-making, and strategic competitive advantage. Major application categories of information systems include operations support systems, such as transaction processing systems, process control systems, and enterprise collaboration systems, and management support systems, such as management information systems, decision support systems, and executive information systems. Other major categories are expert systems, knowledge management systems, strategic information systems, and functional business systems. However, in the real world most application categories are combined into cross-functional information systems that provide information and support for decision-making and also perform operational information processing activities.

Electronic commerce Internet

Electronic commerce, generally known ase-commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet. It involves the use of electronic means similar as websites, online platforms, and electronic payment systems to conduct business deals.

The field of Management Information Systems( MIS) encompasses the use of technology and information systems to support colorful business functions within an association. When it comes toe-commerce, MIS plays a pivotal part in enabling and managing online business operations.

Then are some crucial aspects of howe-commerce relates to MIS

  1. Online Presence.
  2. Online Ordering and Inventory Management.
  3. Customer Relationship Management (CRM).
  4. Secure Online Transactions.
  5. Data Analytics and Decision Making.
  6. Supply Chain Management.


The Internet is the most important tool and essential resource used by almost everyone in the world. Connect millions of computers, web pages, websites and servers. You can use the Internet to send emails, photos, videos, and messages to loved ones. Or put another way, the Internet is a vastly interconnected network of computers and electronic devices (Internet-enabled). We create a communication environment to share and receive information on the Internet. As long as your device is connected to the internet, you can access all apps, websites, social networking apps, and many other services. The Internet is currently considered the fastest medium for sending and receiving information.


An extranet is an organization’s private network accessible only to selected users. A secure and controlled way to connect with third parties such as suppliers, customers and partners. Users usually have a login mechanism such as username and password to access the network. Simply put, extranets provide a secure network through which organizations can share information with relevant people outside the organization. It is part of an organization’s internal network separated by a firewall.

Enterprise Solutions

Enterprise solutions are software applications designed to meet the multifaceted needs of individual end users or organizations, not small businesses. As large organizations with a wide scope of operations, companies often face unique challenges such as interdepartmental interactions and international trade. Enterprise solutions can help businesses overcome these challenges to increase productivity.

Information System for Business Operations

Business operations are the activities that a company undertakes on a daily basis to add value to its business and generate profits. Activities can be optimized to generate enough revenue to cover costs and generate profits for business owners. Employees help achieve business goals by performing specific functions such as marketing, accounting, manufacturing, and more.

Decision Support System

An information system for managerial decision support in Management Information Systems (MIS) refers to a system that collects, organizes, and analyzes data to provide managers with relevant information and insights for making informed business decisions. These systems are designed to support managerial decision-making processes by providing timely and accurate data, analytical tools, and interactive interfaces.

Components of a Managerial Decision Support System (DSS):

  1. Data Collection.
  2. Data Storage and Integration.
  3. Data Analysis.
  4. Reporting and Presentation.
  5. Decision Support Tools.
  6. User Interface.

Information systems for strategic advantage

Every organization has its own strategic way of managing company information. The strategy used depends on the vision and mission of the company. This article is based on research on how information systems can be strategically used as a source of competitive advantage. The case study mainly mentions Emirates Airline as the main industry compared to British Airways. The study includes the use of Porter’s four general strategies, SWOT analysis, basic business strategies and formulas based on the research methodology.

Managing Information Technology

Managing Information Technology( IT) involves overseeing the planning, perpetration, and conservation of IT systems within an association. It encompasses a range of conditioning, including strategic decision- timber, resource allocation, design operation, and security.

Then are some crucial aspects of managing IT in MIS:

  1. Strategic Planning.
  2. Resource Allocation.
  3. Project Management.
  4. IT Infrastructure Management.
  5. IT Security.
  6. Vendor Management.
  7. Compliance and Governance.
  8. Continuous Improvement.

Enterprise & Global Management

Enterprise and Global Management refers to the application of management principles and practices to the effective utilization of information systems within an organization in a global context. It involves understanding how technology and information systems can be leveraged to achieve organizational goals and enhance competitiveness on a global scale.

Here are some key aspects of Enterprise and Global Management in MIS:

  1. Strategic Planning.
  2. Global Information Systems.
  3. International Business Operations.
  4. Technology Integration.
  5. Data Analytics and Business Intelligence.
  6. Risk Management.
  7. Ethical and Legal Considerations.

Security & Ethical Challenges

The field of Management Information Systems (MIS) encompasses the use of technology and information systems to support organizational processes and decision-making. While MIS offers numerous benefits, there are also several security and ethical challenges that organizations need to address. Here are some key challenges:

  1. Data breaches.
  2. Information security.
  3. Privacy concerns.
  4. Ethical use of data.
  5. Insider threats.
  6. System reliability and availability.
  7. Intellectual property protection.
  8. Compliance with regulations.

Planning & Implementing Change

Planning and implementing change requires careful consideration and a structured approach. Here is a step-by-step guide to help you navigate the process effectively:

  1. Identify the Need for Change.
  2. Set Clear Objectives.
  3. Conduct a Readiness Assessment.
  4. Develop a Change Management Plan.
  5. Communicate the Change.
  6. Provide Training and Support.
  7. Pilot Test and Evaluate.
  8. Monitor and Measure.
  9. Address Resistance and Concerns.
  10. Make Iterative Improvements.


MIS reports provide summary and condensed views of the various verticals that must be tracked for the proper functioning of the business. The primary purpose of this report is to take a given parameter and compare it to business operating performance.

MIS Report Types

MIS (Management Information System) reports are designed to provide management with relevant and timely information to support decision-making and strategic planning. The specific types of MIS reports can vary depending on the industry, organization, and management needs. Here are some commonly used types of MIS reports:

  1. Financial Reports.
  2. Sales and Marketing Reports.
  3. Inventory Reports.
  4. Production Reports.
  5. HR Reports.
  6. Project Management Reports.
  7. Customer Service Reports.
  8. Executive Dashboards.
  9. Operational Reports.
  10. Compliance Reports.

GUI & Presentation Tools

GUI (Graphical User Interface) and other presentation tools play a significant role in Management Information Systems (MIS) by providing a user-friendly interface and effective data presentation capabilities. Here are some common GUI and presentation tools used in MIS:

  1. Graphical User Interface (GUI).
  2. Dashboards.
  3. Data Visualization Tools.
  4. Presentation Software.
  5. Report Generators.
  6. Collaboration Tools.
  7. Prototyping Tools.

Advanced concepts

Advanced concepts in information systems encompass various topics that involve the application of technology, data management, and decision-making processes within organizations. Here are a few advanced concepts in MIS:

  1. Big Data Analytics.
  2. Cloud Computing.
  3. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML),
  4. Internet of Things (IoT).
  5. Blockchain Technology.
  6. Business Intelligence (BI) and Data Warehousing.
  7. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems.

Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) refers to the type of software that organizations use to manage day-to-day business operations such as accounting, procurement, project management, risk management and compliance, and supply chain operations. The complete ERP package also includes Enterprise Performance Management, software that supports planning, budgeting, forecasting and reporting of an organization’s financial results.

various modules like Human Resources

Now that the HR system market is constantly evolving, it is worth learning more about the key modules that an HRMS must have in order to provide the desired efficiencies and insights to your business.

Below we share the most important modules to look for in an effective HR system. Some modules can overlap in categories or processes.

1- HR Database
2- Recruitment
3- Onboarding
4- Performance Management
5- Workforce Management
6- Training
7- Payroll
8- Benefits Administration
9- HR Analytics
10- Offboarding


Finance is concerned with managing an organization’s financial resources and ensuring the availability of funds for various activities. Within MIS, financial data is collected, processed, and analyzed to provide valuable insights into the financial health and performance of the organization. MIS systems often include modules for financial management, such as financial reporting, budgeting, financial planning, and analysis. These modules facilitate the monitoring of financial metrics, tracking expenses, revenue generation, cash flow management, and financial forecasting.


Accounting involves the recording, analyzing, and reporting of an organization’s financial transactions. MIS incorporates accounting information to provide real-time visibility into financial data. This allows managers to make informed decisions related to resource allocation, cost control, and financial strategy. MIS systems often integrate accounting modules that handle functions such as general ledger management, accounts payable/receivable, financial statement preparation, and compliance reporting. These modules streamline the accounting process, enhance accuracy, and provide timely financial information for decision-making purposes.

Production& Logistics

Production and logistics involve managing the manufacturing or service delivery processes and optimizing the flow of goods and services throughout the supply chain. MIS systems support production planning, scheduling, inventory management, and logistics operations. These systems capture data related to production volumes, resource utilization, inventory levels, supplier information, transportation, and distribution. By integrating production and logistics data within MIS, managers gain visibility into key performance indicators, such as production efficiency, product quality, lead times, inventory turnover, and delivery performance. This information enables them to optimize operations, identify bottlenecks, and make informed decisions to improve overall productivity and customer satisfaction.

Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management is the systematic and strategic alignment of existing business functions and tactics within those business functions (within a particular company and across the business of the supply chain), all aligned to improve the long-term performance of individual companies and their suppliers. . chain as a whole.


Customer relationship management (CRM) is the art of managing all relationships and interactions between a business and its customers and potential customers. The goal is simple. It’s about growing your business by improving business relationships. CRM systems help businesses stay in touch with customers, streamline processes and improve profitability.


Procurement includes a set of activities related to the receipt of goods or services. What is the purpose of your purchase? Typically, purchasing departments strive to obtain competitively priced items that offer the best value. However, not all companies define procurement the same way. Many companies view procurement as encompassing everything from gathering and sourcing business requirements to tracking receipt of merchandise and updating payment terms, while others define procurement as a narrower activity, such as issuing a purchase order and making payments.