Introduction to Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing tutorial provides introductory and advanced generalities of mobile computing. In this tutorial, you’ll get an overview of Mobile Computing, its nonstop elaboration, and the unborn trends of this technology. Our Mobile Computing tutorial is designed for newcomers and professionals.

Mobile Computing Challenges

Mobile computing challenges, while offering convenience and flexibility, is also associated with several issues. Here are some common challenges and concerns in mobile computing:

  1. Battery Life.
  2. Network Connectivity.
  3. Security Risks.
  4. Compatibility and Fragmentation.
  5. Limited Resources.
  6. Privacy Concerns.
  7. User Interface and Interaction.
  8. Mobile Application Development.
  9. Mobile Health and Safety.
  10. Digital Divide.

Wireless Telephony

Wireless telephony is the technology that operates by the transmission of information through space; there is no physical or fixed connection between sender and receiver bias. By using wireless telephony people can be transceivers information from planes driving motorcars, swimming pools, and jam in the demesne.

Digital Cellular Standards

digital cellular standards refer to the technologies and protocols used for wireless communication in cellular networks. These standards define the specifications for how mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, communicate with the cellular network infrastructure.

There have been several generations of digital cellular standards, each offering advancements in terms of data transfer rates, network capacity, and other features. Here are some of the key standards that have been widely deployed:

  1. 2G (Second Generation).
  2. 2.5G (Second and a Half Generation).
  3. 3G (Third Generation).
  4. 4G (Fourth Generation).
  5. 4.5G and 4.9G.
  6. 5G (Fifth Generation).

Cellular system architecture

Cellular system architecture refers to the overall structure and organization of a cellular network. It encompasses the various components, protocols, and interfaces that enable mobile communication between devices within the network. The architecture of a cellular system typically includes the following key elements:

  1. User Equipment (UE).
  2. Base Station (BS).
  3. Radio Access Network (RAN).
  4. Core Network (CN).
  5. Network Management System (NMS).
  6. Backhaul Network:.

MAP (Multiple Access protocols)

MAP are a set of protocols operating in the Medium Access Control sublayer of the Open Systems Interconnection( OSI) model. These protocols allow a number of bumps or stoners to pierce a shared network channel. Several data courses forming from several bumps are transferred through themulti- point transmission channel.

TDMA

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) a digital wireless telephony transmission fashion. TDMA allocates each stoner a different time niche on a given frequency. TDMA divides each cellular channel into three time places in order to increase the quantum of data that can be carried.

TDMA technology was more popular in Europe, Japan and Asian countries, where as CDMA is extensively used in North and South America. But now a days both techologies are veritably popular through out of the world.

FDMA

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) is a multiple access protocol used in telecommunications to allow multiple users to share a common communication channel by dividing it into different frequency bands. Each user is assigned a unique frequency band within the available spectrum, and they transmit and receive data using that specific frequency.

CDMA

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) a digital wireless technology that uses spread- diapason ways. CDMA doesn’t assign a specific frequence to each stoner. rather, every channel uses the full available diapason. Individual exchanges are decoded with apseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA constantly provides better capacity for voice and data dispatches than other marketable mobile technologies, allowing further subscribers to connect at any given time, and it’s the common platform on which 3G technologies are erected.

GSm

GSM represents Global Systems for Mobile Dispatches. It’s the abecedarian standard- deliverer of 2G technologies. It’s generally used in mobile communication. Short Messaging System( SMS) was introduced into GSM networks along with the capability to download content from multiple service providers. The content can ringtone, ensigns, and image dispatches. It can give Voice telephony and data still the data cost is only 9.6 Kb / s that’s a veritably low bit cost for date communication.

Handoffs

Handoffs do when work is passed from one person to another person. In utmost cases, a handoff entails reorienting the work and getting it ready to add value to it. Handoffs in manufacturing act a little suchlike speed bumps. They produce interruptions in the inflow of work. When a handoff is disconnected, the effect is bigger. suppose of putting corridor into a wain that sits in a line, that also has to be wheeled over to the coming step in the process. The hamstrung handoff creates waste

Near-far problem

Near-far problems or audibility problems are affected by strong signals from nearby signal sources, making it difficult for receivers to hear weak signals from distant sources due to adjacent channel interference, co-channel interference, distortion, etc. . Capture effect, limited dynamic range, etc. These situations are common in wireless communication systems, especially CDMA. Some signal jamming techniques use short-range and long-range problems to disrupt (“jam”) communications.

Channel Allocation

Channel allocation refers to allocating an available channel to a cell in a cellular system. When a user wants to make a call request, his request is made through a channelization strategy. Channel allocation strategies are designed to use frequency, time slots, and bandwidth efficiently.

Wireless Networking

Wireless networking plays a pivotal part in mobile computing by enabling bias to connect and communicate without the need for physical lines. It allows mobile bias similar as smartphones, tablets, and laptops to pierce the internet, share data, and communicate with other bias wirelessly.

There are several technologies and norms used in wireless networking for mobile computing

  1. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity).
  2. Cellular Networks.
  3. Bluetooth.
  4. NFC (Near Field Communication).
  5. Zigbee and Z-Wave.

Wireless LAN Overview

A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that uses high-frequency radio waves instead of cables to connect devices within a limited area to form a local area network (LAN). Users connected to a wireless LAN can move within restricted areas such as homes, schools, campuses, office buildings, and railroad platforms.

MAC Problem

There may be a problem with your Mac, but the solution can be simple! Let’s take a look at some common Mac problems and how to fix them. Sudden and frequent restarts, especially with warnings displayed on the screen, are called kernel panics.

IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 set of technical standards for local area networks (LANs) and defines a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) protocols for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communications. The standards and amendments provide the basis for wireless networking products that use the Wi-Fi brand and are the world’s most widely used wireless computer networking standards. IEEE 802.11 is used in most home and office networks and allows laptops, printers, smartphones and other devices to communicate with each other and access the Internet wirelessly. IEEE 802.11, along with IEEE 802.11p, is also the basis for automotive communications networks.

Blue Tooth

Bluetooth is a communication technology that allows bias to communicate directly with each other without going through interposers similar as routers, switches, or repeaters. Sounds like a normal old radio would work, but itdoesn’t.However, Bluetooth is more like anultra-fine sluice of water, If everyday radio is further than a fire sock for communication. Radio stations put a lot of power on their signals and shoot them indiscriminately through the airwaves. Bluetooth offerings power for delicacy.

TCP over wireless- Indirect TCP

Indirect TCP parts a TCP connection into a fixed part and a wireless part. The following figure shows an illustration with a mobile host connected via a wireless link and an access point to the ‘ wired ’ internet where the pressmanhost resides.

Snoop Protocol

Snoop protocol ensures memory cache coherency in symmetric multiprocessing( SMP) systems. Each processor cache on a machine observers, or snoops, the machine to corroborate whether it has a dupe of a requested data block. Before a processor writes data, other processor cache clones must be abrogated or streamlined.

Fast retransmit

Fast Retransmit is part of TCP’s traffic control algorithm that’s responsible for retransmission of data parts that have been supposed to be missing. Fast retransmit is touched off when 3 indistinguishable acknowledgments( ACKs) are entered for the same data member.

Mobile TCP

Mobile TCP is a small program located in your Windows charger, the purpose of the program is to manage easy switching between networks when you’re having a laptop or some other kind of dynamic IP switching( redundancy for illustration).

Mobile IP

Mobile IP( or MIP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force( IETF) standard dispatches protocol that’s designed to allow mobile device druggies to move from one network to another while maintaining a endless IP address. Mobile IP for IPv4 is described in IETF RFC 5944, and extensions are defined in IETF RFC 4721. Mobile IPv6, the IP mobility perpetration for the coming generation of the Internet Protocol, IPv6, is described in RFC 6275.

WAP

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a protocol that’s introduced in 1999, which stands for Wireless operation protocol. It offers Internet dispatches over wireless bias, similar as mobile phones. In the early 2000s, it fulfilled some fashionability and was substantially supplanted by more recent norms by the 2010s. Also, it offers a way of creating web operations for mobile bias, and it’s designed formicro-browsers.

Applications

Applications are pieces of software that enable a stoner to perform certain tasks on a computer or mobile device. All computers and mobile bias contain preloaded or erected- in operations, similar as a web cybersurfer, calculator and media player. These operations operate using your device’s operating system( zilches), with the support of background programs.

Mobile Data Management Challenges

Mobile computing presents several data management challenges, including:

  1. Limited storage capacity.
  2. Network connectivity and bandwidth limitations.
  3. Data synchronization across multiple devices.
  4. Security and privacy concerns.
  5. Data fragmentation.
  6. Context-awareness.
  7. Energy efficiency.
  8. Data backup and recovery.

Data Replication in mobile computers

Data Replication in mobile computing means the sharing of information to insure data thickness between software and tackle coffers connected via the internet, to ameliorate trustability, vacuity, fault- forbearance, and availability of data.

Adaptive clustering for mobile wireless networks

Adaptive clustering for mobile wireless networks Abstract This paper describes a tone- organizing, multihop, mobile radio network which relies on a law- division access scheme for multimedia support. In the proposed network armature, bumps are organized into nonoverlapping clusters.

File system (CODA)

Coda is a distributed train system developed as a exploration design at Carnegie Mellon University since 1987 under the direction of Mahadev Satyanarayanan. It descended directly from an aged interpretation of Andrew train System( AFS- 2) and offers numerous analogous features. The InterMezzo train system was inspired by Coda.

Disconnected operations

The applicability of disconnected operation has surfaced. Disconnected operation allows druggies to execute operations during temporary failures in networks or when they explicitly decide to work out- line. This paper presents a system, called Jamp, that uses mobile calculation( or logical mobility) to handle dispositions. Jamp has abstractions supporting the migration of groups of objects and classes to other bumps of the network. In this way, programmers can push operations to guests with law and data that makes disconnected operation possible. Keywords dissociated operation, mobile calculation, mobile computing

Mobile Agents

A mobile agent is a specific form of mobile law, within the field of law mobility. still, in discrepancy to the remote evaluation and law on demand programming paradigms, mobile agents are active in that they can choose to resettle between computers at any time during their prosecution.

Transaction processing in mobile computing environmen

Distributed systems are anticipated to support mobile calculations executed over a computer network of fixed and mobile hosts. The authors examine the conditions for structuring similar mobile calculations that pierce participated data in a database, argue that open- nesting can more grease these conditions, and propose an Open- Nested sale model in a mobile terrain using the notion of Reporting Deals andCo-Transactions.

Location management

Location management is the process of relating the physical position of the stoner so that calls directed to that stoner can be routed to that position. position operation is also responsible for vindicating the authenticity of druggies penetrating the network.

static and dynamic

In general, dynamic means” energetic or forceful,” while static means” stationary.” In computer language, still, dynamic generally means” able of action or change,” while static means” fixed.”

Ping pong effect

The Ping- pong effect occurs due to the frequent movement of mobile units between the cell brace, or high signal change at the common boundary of the cell brace. Since the clunk- pong handover increases the times of handover and therefore the lading of the network, it’s necessary for network drivers to reduce this undesirable effect.

location based services

Location based services( LBS) use real- time geodata from a smartphone to give information, entertainment, or security. Some services allow consumers to check in at caffs, coffee shops, stores, musicales, and other places or events. Businesses frequently offer a price – prizes, tickets or abatements – to people who check in at their locales. Google Charts, Foursquare, Yelp and Facebook check- sways all use position- grounded services.

Ad-hoc Network

An ad-hoc network is one that’s spontaneously formed when bias connect and communicate with each other. The term ad hoc is a Latin word that literally means” for this,” inferring extemporized or improvisational.

Ad hoc networks are substantially wireless original area networks( LANs). The bias communicate with each other directly rather of counting on a base station or access points as in wireless LANs for data transfer collaboration. Each device participates in routing exertion, by determining the route using the routing algorithm and forwarding data to other bias via this route.

Wireless ad-hoc mobile networks

Wireless ad-hoc mobile networks are characterized by their decentralized nature, where nodes communicate with each other directly or through intermediate nodes, without relying on a fixed infrastructure. While these networks offer flexibility and are suitable for dynamic environments, they also present challenges, particularly when it comes to message routing. Here are some common problems encountered in message routing in wireless ad-hoc mobile networks:

  1. Limited network resources.
  2. Dynamic topology.
  3. Scalability.
  4. Routing overhead.
  5. Security and privacy.
  6. Quality of Service (QoS).
  7. Lack of centralized control.

Dynamic State Routing (DSR)

The Dynamic state Routing protocol( DSR) is a simple and effective routing protocol designed specifically for use inmulti-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile bumps. DSR allows the network to be fully tone- organizing and tone- configuring, without the need for any being network structure or administration.

Route Maintenance

Routine maintenance ( RM) is defined as conservation conditioning carried out regularly. Tasks can be performed daily, daily, yearly, or annually. Routine conservation generally includes regular examinations and machine servicing. The primary thing is to identify problems on an ongoing base before they affect in outfit failure.

Routing error

Routing crimes can do if your ISP has a catch- all POP3 mailbox and someone sends a communication to a missing stoner, or if someone sends a communication to you using a BCC, which means that the philanthropist dispatch address won’t be in the heads anywhere that VPOP3 can find it.

Fisheye State Routing

Fisheye State Routing( FSR) is a offer for an implicit hierarchical routing protocol targeted to ad hoc networks. The introductory principles of FSR are participated with other visionary, link- state routing protocols. In visionary link- state protocols every network knot constantly updates a topology chart that makes it possible to cipher the shortest path( and therefore the coming hop) to any destination in the network.

AODV(Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector)

AODV Routing is a routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks( MANETs) and other wireless ad hoc networks. It was concertedly developed in July 2003 in Nokia Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Cincinnati byC. Perkins,E. Belding- Royer andS. Das.

AODV is the routing protocol used in Zigbee – a low power, low data rate wireless ad hoc network. There are colorful executions of AODV similar as frenetic- HOC, Kernel- AODV, AODV- UU, AODV- UCSB and AODV- UIUC.